We Need Diverse Books

Anna Szpakowska portrait

Written by Anna Szpakowska

Professional Development Lead at Lyfta

The outpouring of shock, disgust and despair surrounding the murder of George Floyd this year rightly drew our attention to the discrimination suffered by so many on a daily basis. It also drew our attention to the institutional racism pervasive in much of our society. This heightened social awareness led to discussions of diversity in education, with calls for the history curriculum to include black British history and many English teachers sharing their recommended diverse reading lists or schemes of work online. In fact, some young people started a petition to ask the government to include The Good Immigrant and Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race  on the GCSE English Literature specification.

It was heartening to see so many educators impassioned to provide an education to young people which directly tackled issues of discrimination; it’s wonderful to work for a profession that not only wants to provide young people with knowledge and skills but also wants to make the world a better and more just place. 

This is not the first time something like this has happened. In fact, in 2019, Edexcel were forced to add more texts from black, Asian and other minority ethnic writers to their GCSE Literature specification, after complaints about there being ‘too many dead white men’ on the reading list. This decision whilst perhaps well-intentioned, was met with disappointment from educators suggesting that the choices of texts, added by Edexcel, were not challenging enough. And, as Diane Leedham pointed out ‘As with all the exam boards in 2014, it’s clear that the people choosing the set texts that they frame as ‘diverse’ don’t have much knowledge of diaspora literature’

Nevertheless, according to statistics from 2019, only 12.6% of students sitting an English Literature GCSE in 2019, sat the Edexcel qualification. In fact, the largest percentage (85%) of pupils sitting an English Literature GCSE in 2019 sat the AQA qualification. And figures from the AQA Examiner’s Report in 2019 show that of the most popular texts studied by all centres completing the AQA English Literature GCSE, all of the authors were white men, very few of the characters were women and none of the characters were black or Asian. The dilemma for educators then, is not only are the exam boards not providing enough suitable texts to truly reflect the experiences of most of us in society, but that the majority of schools themselves continue to choose to teach texts written by dead white men. 

As teachers of English literature, we are the gatekeepers of books and literature accessed by many young people. It is, therefore, our moral obligation to expose young people to a wide variety of texts that provide them with a range of experiences, voices and characters. As Botelho and Rudman explain (expanding on Sims-Bishop’s metaphor of windows, mirrors and doors): 

‘Children need to see themselves reflected so as to affirm who they and their communities are. They also require windows through which they may view a variety of differences…. Literature can become a conduit- a door- to engage in social practices that function for social justice’

Where are all the women?

For the purposes of this post, I will focus my thoughts on female writers, characters and issues of sexism and misogyny. That is not to say that I place more value on the inclusion of female writers and characters than I do on black authors and characters, gay authors and characters or authors and characters with disabilities, for example. I just feel that as a woman, I am best placed to discuss the issue of women in literature. 

So, why then, in 2020, do we have to have a discussion about young people accessing texts written by and about women? And, why is it so important anyway? Aren’t women equal after all? Unfortunately, the answer is a resounding no. Despite the equal pay act being introduced fifty years ago this year, the UK’s gender pay gap is still 17.3% with the World Economic Forum reporting that it will take 202 years to close this gap. As well as this, statistics gathered from 2019, show that the number of women and girls murdered in 2019 rose by 10% on the previous year, to take it to the highest figure since 2006. It’s clear there’s much more work to be done before we can claim our equality. 

With no shortage of female authors writing about the female experience, why do we continue to choose to teach texts written by and about men? The myth of the superiority of the ‘great’ English literary canon has a lot to answer for but what worries me a great deal is that teachers continue to buy into this myth. By continuing to teach these texts – and more often than not, attempting to mirror the GCSE curriculum at Key Stage 3 too – we perpetuate the notion that one voice (the white male) is superior to everyone else’s. 

And, yes, it’s true that children may be reading plenty of texts by women and about women in their own time. But, when they haven’t been taught the critical skills to unpick the sometimes-sexist depiction of female characters, I fear that we are at risk of inculcating a generation of young people with sexist ideals. 

Both young women and young men need to see a variety of female characters. They need to be able to discuss issues of sexism. It’s not our job to police what they read and discourage them from reading books such  Louise Rennison’s Angus Thongs and Full Frontal Snogging because, as Kimberley Reynolds explains it depicts female characters who are ‘only interested in friends, fashion and fun’. But it is our job to show young people alternatives and teach them to read critically. Characters like Starr in Angie Thomas’ The Hate U Give, for example show a passionate, intelligent, strong and socially responsible young woman. Or, Dana in Octavia Butler’s Kindred could provide opportunity for discussions of gender and race whilst also providing them with an insight into the Antebellum South and the science fiction genre too. For teenagers (some of whom will already be sexually active), it’s important to address the issue of sexual assault. Books like Amber Smith’s The Way I Used to Be could be helpful in achieving this. 

What’s key here is that teachers clearly have the passion, the willingness and the desire to teach a wider variety of authors and texts. I hope the passion and impetus we have garnered this year does not disappear and our calls for a more diverse reading list can be implemented. But what must also accompany these reading lists and all literacy education is critical discussions about how and why characters are presented in certain ways. 


Why Diversity Matters in Education: “The rise of an internationally-minded child.”

Fatma Khalid portrait

Written by Fatma Khalid

A lot has been written recently about diversity, especially in education. Whilst diversity has been “entertained” by a lot of administrators and specifically policy makers into bringing the novelty idea to practice, there is still a lot to be done in terms of making our society and specifically our educational sector more diverse. 

Majority of times I have seen students, even my own children, being confused about their culture and identity specifically for children who are born and raised in countries that are not their countries of origin. The implications of this reaches out to sometimes loss of identity or even worse the breed of inferiority that we find most common even here in the UAE where certain cultures and nationalities are often viewed as being better because of how they are portrayed or advocated. This is further challenged by the market niche in the UAE which gravitates towards recruiting teachers of certain nationalities further compromising the practice or need for diversity and inclusivity. Children grow up feeling that the most knowledgeable and people holding high offices are isolated to only ‘a certain kind’ which itself is a huge impediment to ambition and self-esteem.

Although schools have tried to review their curriculums to include enriched activities that promote culturally diversified programs, little has been done to support world-wide inclusiveness or build a truly “international minded” child.  Curriculums majority of times are still country bound; where they cover history or cultures to that particular country as compared to covering world history and include studying cultures of the world so children can truly build acceptance and respect and be aware of other cultures that are unique and significantly different to theirs; this is what after all is defined as an “international minded child”. How else can a child build compassion or become a global citizen if he/she spends all their lives thinking there was only one culture or history that was worth studying and understanding.

All efforts need to be in place to ensure that all children’s cultures are represented in curriculum which is highly recommended for a highly inclusive society such as the one here in the UAE.  Culture awareness cannot be left for isolated occasions such as the most commonly celebrated “international day” where children and parents are encouraged to bring their traditional food and dress in their traditional clothes, then tribute done and the rest of the year, children go back to studying the curriculum (country bound) history. When we have made technology a mandate, cultural diversity too holds importance and should be integral and be embedded in our core curriculums. 

Moreover, ensuring that our teams are made up of qualified individuals from different nationalities increases the opportunity for children to learn and understand cultures from multiple countries that most importantly also represents them. Curriculums are consequently enriched with creativity and increased global perspective for a truly diverse society that aims to understand, acknowledge and accept that although we are different, we are fundamentally the same kind…

The human kind.


The Role of Wellbeing & Resilience in Diversity

Tasha Fletcher portrait

Written by Tasha Fletcher

Lead Primary Teacher in KS1

Resilience “an innate capacity to rebound from adversity and change through a process of positive adaptation. For young children and adolescence, resilience is a fluid, dynamic process that is influenced over time by life events, temperament, insight, skill sets, and the primary ability of caregivers and the social environment to nurture and provide them a sense of safety, competency, and secure attachments.” National Resilience Resource Center

International and local schools around the world are culturally, ethnically, and racially diverse. Now more than ever there needs to be a conscious shift in the role that wellbeing, mental health and resilience play in  diverse classrooms. 

But how can we as educators begin making this a priority in our classrooms?

What are some of the signs we should look out for?

What role can we play in ensuring our students feel valued and safe regardless of their ethnic backgrounds?

What is culture?

Culture shapes society’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. Every individual is a part of multiple cultural groups, based on several factors such as; race, ethnicity, faith, country, type of work, level of education, physical ability or disability status, sexual identity and so on.

If you work with young children or teenagers that have different cultural backgrounds from your own, there can be additional communication challenges, as teachers we face these challenges every day.  Many communities have agencies that provide services for specific cultural and ethnic populations.

How is wellbeing and resilience linked to diversity?

Wellbeing and resilience play a huge role in diversity, especially in today’s classroom where the cultural differences that exist between teachers and their students/students and their peers are numerous.

Diversity may exist with regard to race, culture, religion, language, sexual orientation and socioeconomic status. Parents/guardians, teachers, caregivers, extended family members and other adults in children’s lives have an important role to play both in their responsibilities and opportunities to model ways for children and teenagers to feel safe, connected, valued, capable, respected and grow in resilience.

Unfortunately, within many school systems, a lot of students are faced with discrimination from other students as well as staff every day, due to a lack of understanding or empathy with regard to the variations in beliefs, practices, and values of different cultural groups. Since ethnic minority children have higher rates of suspension/expulsion, special education placement and school dropout, it is evident that numerous disparities exist within our education systems.

There are instances where students, for a variety of reasons, may face more challenges due to adversity, trauma or unsafe living conditions at home. On the other hand, children can grow up in completely nurturing environments and still, because of genetics, brain chemistry or a special educational need, have an emotional, mental health or behavioural disorder. 

The role of culture

Culture has a significant impact on the beliefs and attitudes surrounding child development, identification of problems and judgment about the best way to intervene when problems do occur. Furthermore, each of us operates within an individual culture, which espouses specific beliefs that determine how we interact with others and interpret their actions. 

Cultural variations in expressions of behaviour may contribute to misunderstandings and conflict, which can be decreased through enhancing multicultural awareness. And while risk is a contributing factor for poor outcomes, it is not a given because educators, parents/guardians and other adults entrusted with the care of young children and teenagers can help all children gain and maintain a sense of their own strengths and abilities (if they know how to and should receive support from the relevant authorities; DSO, counsellors, psychologists, child and wellbeing services etc).

So what can we do as educators and parents to promote diversity and inclusion in schools and communities?

Recognise the cultural diversity and uniqueness of students and learn as much as you can about your students’ cultural background by spending time with your students and getting to know them. (This is especially good to do at the start of the year) and a simple “All about Me” activity is a great way to start. Some teachers may argue that this activity is geared towards younger children, but as a teacher creativity is at the heart of what we do. You can turn this into a carousel activity of guess who clues for Middle School or KS2 children and staff around the school, in the gymnasium or sports field.  

You can start a class mystery blog for Secondary students in which each student writes a blog about him/herself (I would suggest giving a minimum word limit but not a maximum). 

The goal will be to feature a new student each week and the class has fun guessing who it may be while learning about each other. 

Whatever activity you choose to do, don’t just collect the information, use that information to help your students and create successful relationships in which your students feel valued as a member of your class.

Recognise that socioeconomic and political factors have a significant impact on the psychosocial functioning of culturally and ethnically diverse groups

Develop an awareness of your own cultural and ethnic background and acknowledge differences in the culture between you and your students. 

You can do this by incorporating instructional strategies into your school’s curriculum that are sensitive to cultural differences such as: text books, planned activities and field trips, print rich environments which can include key/everyday words which represents the various ethnicities of students in your classroom or invite students to contribute something from their different cultural backgrounds towards the classroom displays to help build a sense of belonging, feeling valued and a voice.

Promote tolerance and understanding of cultural differences – as a teacher or parent you can promote this in many ways:

Incorporating fun learning projects that teach about diversity, wellbeing, mental health and resilience through.

PSHCE discussions or peer and group collaborations using task cards. I have created some wonderful resources which can be used to help children recognise the value they bring to the group and to understand the role they play in keeping well and mentally healthy for both primary/early years and middle school/upper primary.

International day celebrations – children, staff, parents and members of the community can contribute to events like this to promote diversity, equality and respect.

Teachers and children could plan activities together with their parents to showcase a country for a day/week. Together you may all choose to dress up in the traditional clothes of that specific country/culture for a day, learn a new song, poem or read aloud in the language and present it. Inviting guest speakers, or watching a film together are also other hands-on ways you can promote and celebrate diversity in your classroom or school.

But why stop there?

As a teacher you can work together with schools in other countries and collaborate on a mutual interest with your students. The aim here is to expose the children to cultures and ways of doing things that are different from their own by instilling tolerance, respect, reflection and developing the understanding that although some people may look, dress, and speak differently than they do they each have a uniqueness that should be valued and celebrated.

What can we do as educators, parents/guardians and caregivers to support resilience?

Instil in children a sense of values while respecting other viewpoints.

Encourage good nutrition, exercise, diet and physical fitness for example you can include yoga or breathing exercises as part of your brain breaks with students during class times.

Teach gratitude and a recognition of blessings in life, as teachers we probably do this every day. We often ask our students to reflect on their lesson by checking their targets or filling in smiley faces.

Why not include wellbeing and resilience as part of that gratitude too?

You could create a reflective/wall of gratitude which could be placed on a wall or door to the exit. Students can then write something they were thankful for at the end of the year and add it to the wall as  they leave for the day. 

Another way to incorporate this could be creating a wall of gratitude in a padlet and students can fill in one thing on the wall as a home activity. It can also be a useful sharing tool for weekend activities.

Provide opportunities for friendships and a social support system to develop. As adults we know how important it is to have good, strong and dependable social groups from adults we trust and can count on.

The same goes for children and teenagers, as adults we should ensure that the children entrusted in our care know where to go to for help if they need it and are not afraid to ask for it too. Encouraging opportunities for social support systems with friends and trusted adults is a good way in which to do this. School counsellors, homeroom teachers, social support groups within the school or community are all ways in which we can promote this.

Try to encourage children’s ability to figure out life through trials, error and success. A lot of children because of cultural norms, low self esteem or socio economic status are under pressure “ to not accept failure” or grow up hearing that failure is unacceptable from the adults who are sworn to protect them. 

Failure is a big part of success and growth, therefore young children and teenagers NEED to know that it is okay to fail. After all it is how we learn, and acceptance of that failure is paramount to the next step which should inevitably be success.

As adults it is equally important to take care of ourselves too.

Find ways to take care of yourself based on what you enjoy doing, for me going on long walks in nature or reading usually does the trick.

Be mindful of how your thinking is helping or hurting your situation. Always be careful of your thoughts, for what you believe have the tendency to become.

Find comfort in the small things and gratitude in your own accomplishments and contributions. This can be as simple as acknowledging out loud something you are successful at or grateful for each day. 

Be a lifelong learner, find enjoyment through learning new ideas.

Promote ways to feel competent, connected, and to have life satisfaction.

And finally Instil a sense of pride in your family as well as your cultural traditions and rituals.

About the author: 

Tasha is a lead primary teacher in KS1| mum of two boys | Designated Safeguarding Officer | ELT Materials writer. With a specialisation in Early Childhood and Psychology, she has more than 16 years of experience in young learner education, starting in pre-primary and primary in Trinidad & Tobago (Caribbean) before specialising in TEFL to young learners. She has lived and worked in 9 countries across the world, working in teaching, teacher training, assessment and educational development. When she is not teaching, she enjoys spending time with her family playing football, basketball and nature walks. 


In Search of Great Governance

Rosemary Hoyle portrait

Written by Rosemary Hoyle

Primary School Governor and Chair for over 20 years.

Inspired to write this post by a recent online event held as part of the Freedom to Learn Festival I have been prompted to draw together all my recent thoughts on diversity and the role of governance.  In the opening remarks one of the speakers stated that it is a ‘schools’ purpose to create the next generation of global citizens’ and, not to give the game away too soon, that is surely why diversity matters!  Looking back over earlier posts that I have written about the core functions of governance and, in particular the one about vision, values and strategy, I can see immediately how the board can lead in this area.  In the strategic aims of the school I chair, agreed by the board after consultation with children, staff and the community, we felt strongly that there was a need to make diversity explicit so we state that we want to be – 

A school that is at the heart of the community; a good neighbour and engaged with community groups of all ages. A school that builds on our pupils’ own experiences, interests and strengths and helps to develop their sense of identity as local, national and global citizens.  

In order to do this, we state that we want ‘A curriculum that exposes children to other cultures and offers opportunities to explore a wide range of ideas’.  After listening to the presentations at the Diverse Educators event I think this needs to be even stronger, wider and bolder in its aspirations.  It isn’t just learning about others is it? Another of the speakers at the online event talked about being able to be your own authentic self and, surely, in order for that to happen you have to believe that your own ethnicity, your own culture and religion, your own sexuality, your own gender identification or your own disability has a place and is valued and represented in the world around you. 

So, let’s get back to the beginning – Yes, for this very important reason diversity matters and it matters to the whole school community.  It matters in the curriculum we teach our children and it matters in the resources that support this work.  It matters in the public information, the displays and the literature that families see about our schools.  It matters in the workplace, in the leaders and staff that the children (and staff) see around them every day in school and it matters in the board of governors. It is part of the ‘ethic of everybody’. (1) It should be a thread that runs through every part of our education system and we, as governors, have a big part to play in leading this. Mary Myatt suggests that governors ‘might ask themselves whether their work is underpinned by doing right by everybody?’ (2)  Any boards that have been involved in the Ethical Leadership in Education Project will have given a lot of consideration to this recently but take a moment to look around the boardroom table for there are real dangers in group think from a board that lacks diversity. In the 2019 NGA survey 93% of respondents identified as white and only 10% reported being under 40! (3)   

Then look up from that table and look at the school you lead, support and challenge, and ask yourselves are we really inclusive – does diversity matter here? (4) (5)

Here are a series of questions that we governors should ask

-of ourselves:

  1. How does our board reflect the diversity of the school community it serves?
  2. Is valuing diversity explicit in our vision and strategy?
  3. Do we/Should we have a governor who is focused on diversity?
  4. What training have we undertaken as a board to challenge and reflect on our understanding of diversity?
  5. How often have we talked about this at a board discussion? 

– of our school:

  1. Does our public information reflect the diversity around us?
  2. How and where is diversity evident in our curriculum – right from the Early Years?
  3. Do we have resources for our children from Early Years onwards which have a full range of representation – books, dolls, displays around the school?
  4. Are our staff confident to answer questions and continue conversations with children about diversity – do they know what language to use?
  5. What CPD have they been able to access to help them with this?

Notes:

  1. Dame Alison Peacock quoted in Mary Myatt, Hopeful Schools,2016, p 60-62 
  2. Mary Myatt, Hopeful Schools,2016, p 61
  3. National Governance Association, School Governance in 2019, [online] at https://www.nga.org.uk/Knowledge-Centre/research-(1)/Annual-school-governance-survey/School-governance-in-2019.aspxaccessed 21/08/2020
  4. The Ethical Leadership Commission, Framework for Ethical Leadership in Education, [online] at https://www.nga.org.uk/ethicalleadership.aspxaccessed 21/08/2020
  5. National Governance Association, Everyone on Board, NGA [online] at https://www.nga.org.uk/News/Campaigns/Everyone-on-Board-increasing-diversity-in-school-g.aspxaccessed 21/08/2020


Not spoon-feeding: Teaching essay writing and helping students to plan their work is a decolonising practice

Dr Anna Carlile portrait

Written by Dr Anna Carlile

Head of the Department of Educational Studies at Goldsmiths, University of London.

This blog was the subject of a picket line teach-out during the UCU strike at Goldsmiths in March 2020 and was first published at https://inclusiveeducation652853906.wordpress.com/

Why should we embed essay writing and other academic skills into our university teaching?

If you are a student looking for guidance for yourself, or a lecturer seeking to embed academic skills into your own teaching, scroll down below the article for guidance on the following:

  1. Plan your work schedule
  2. Learn exam revision skills
  3. Learn exam strategy
  4. How to write a literature review
  5. What goes in a methods section?
  6. How to write a data-with-analysis/findings section

Teaching academic skills is a decolonising pedagogy

How did you learn how to write a literature review?

I have heard people say that by teaching academic skills in the university classroom, we are spoon-feeding our students. But this misunderstands the poor educational service many of our students have experienced before they come to university.

If we are looking at the BAME (albeit an inexact and problematic acronym) award gap in HE, for example, we can’t ignore the impact of institutional prejudice on some students’ educational histories. So what can we do about it, beyond decolonising our reading lists (Goldsmiths library is amazing on this)?

Students who go to elite schools are being prepared for university. They are taught how to write research essays and how to prepare for exams. Some state funded schools do this too, but many arrive with us from institutions which have not been seriously preparing them for university. These institutions have been preparing students for servitude. The education system is set up so that working class students are coached to leave school as working class adults, and middle class students are hot-housed to leave school as middle class adults. Anyone who is perceived to be ‘a risk’ to the project of neoliberalism- in other words, anyone unlikely to leave school a highly effective consumer- is liable to abjection and exclusion.

Academic skills are taught fabulously by library staff at Goldsmiths. Our Academic Skills Centre runs a programme on decolonising study skills. However, low waged students, parents, carers and others with complicated lives may not have the extra time to go to library sessions. And we need to make our academic skills teaching specific to our disciplines, courses, modules and assignments.

But this is where we can decolonise our pedagogies. Instead of assuming students have all had an elite form of education before coming to us, we need to recognise that we may need to rectify the disadvantage built into the system. This is not spoon-feeding. It’s decolonising. In Educational Studies, we recognise this and consistently embed academic skills into all of our teaching.

Below are some examples of decolonising study skills support, together with sample documents and narrated PowerPoints. Feel free to use them for yourself, if you’re a student, or to embed them, change, update and tweak them for your own teaching, if you’re a university tutor or lecturer:

A. Plan your work schedule

Students with busy, complicated lives may feel daunted by the number of essays they need to write. I’ve had students who are living in homeless hostels, who have severe anxiety disorders, who are working two jobs, raising five children alone, contending with domestic violence, or caring for grandparents. Those students need help to plan out their work. I often sit down with a student one-to-one to help with this. You can use this strategy with several months or just a couple of weeks to go before submission deadlines.

How to make a work plan:

  1. Work out how many months you have left
  2. Create a calendar grid with four weeks per month
  3. Add in the weekdays
  4. Add in all your activities. Include self care, relaxing and socialising.
  5. Identify the gaps where you will have time for assignment writing
  6. Make a list of your assignments, with deadlines. Add the deadlines to the calendar.
  7. Work out how many writing days you have for each assignment
  8. Decide if you want to do each assignment in a block or work on them all in rotation
  9. Assign an equal number of writing days to each assignment
  10. Include days at the end of your calendar for editing (see writing in red on the example)
  11. You could also break down each writing day into specific part of each essay (see writing in blue on the example)
  12. Stick to your plan, and reward yourself each day

Here is a Sample Work Plan

B. Learn exam revision skills

Many students have never been shown how to revise. Here is one way of doing it. I used this to stuff my head full of pages and pages of case law for my law degree (which I didn’t really use, but hey…)

  1. work out what you do and don’t need to revise by finding out how many topics might be on the exam
  2. read through your lecture notes, making a summary of them as you go
  3. turn each main point into a question and answer
  4. create a quiz out of your questions and answers
  5. Revise by answering your questions:

(i) in whole sentences (the first few times, feel free to look at the answers)

(ii) in shorthand

(iii) verbally, with a friend holding the answer sheet

  1. Identify the areas which are really hard to remember and create a special quiz for these
  2. Look at and practice old exam papers. Time yourself.

C. Learn exam strategy

I often invigilate exams and I am shocked how many students leave the room before the end. Don’t leave the room! Use all the time you are given. Here are some ideas for best practice in an exam situation:

  1. When you get in the room, read through the whole paper. You might find you have to answer more (or less) questions than you thought.
  2. Make a note of how long you have, and specify a timing for each question. Leave five minutes at the end to read through and edit your answers.
  3. Decide which questions you will answer and quickly jot down the key points you need to include (eg quotes, dates, references). This will allow space in your head to actually write without having to remember facts
  4. Stick to your timings and write as neatly as possible, leaving plenty of space for edits
  5. In the last five to ten minutes, read through everything you have written and edit for sentence structure, accuracy and clarity
  6. Never leave before the end. If you have time left over, read through, edit and add to your answers again

D. How to write a literature review

(PowerPoint here:How to write a literature review GENERIC_recorded (3)– click on ‘Slide Show- Play from start’  and you’ll hear my voice narrating the steps)

1.Start by identifying themes

Come up with three to five themes for your research (eg race/class/gender/parent’s views/teachers’ views/children’s views/policy/faith/food/hair etc).

Open a Word document and write down the themes as subheadings.

  • Themes might be framed around the sub-questions that emerge out of your big question
  • New themes might emerge from the literature
  • Additional themes might emerge as a surprise from your data- you’ll need to come back to revisit your literature review if this is the case
  • They are ideas which you hope to learn or have learned from your research
  • One main theme may be an overarching idea you will use to think about your research: eg feminist theory, queer theory, or critical race theory

2. Library search

  • Spend a good two hours doing a library search for three to five article or chapters for each theme. Try to stick to peer reviewed articles published within the last five years. Download them into folders labelled by theme on your desktop. You may not find articles relating exactly to what you are writing about, but find a ‘best fit’. Your job is to explain how they link to your project. Ask a librarian for help if you can’t find anything.

3. Build the lit review around quotes from the literature. This prevents you from polemicising, or making a point from memory and then searching around for some literature to back it up.

  • Pull out a lovely quote from each of the three to five articles or chapters and write it down under the theme heading. Include year published and page number. Eg: ‘…institutional prejudice underpins some of the causes of permanent exclusion from school’ (Carlile 2012, p.178).
  • Each theme heading should now have four or five quotes from the literature underneath it.

4. Add words to introduce each quote, or paraphrase it:

  • Eg: Carlile (2012, p.178) explains that ‘…institutional prejudice underpins some of the causes of permanent exclusion from school’.

5. Add joining sentences

Eg: Another person who wrote about school exclusion is Kulz (2018), who point out the racial bias in the ways in which her students were pulled out of her classroom by senior management.

(Side note- Christy Kulz’s book Factories for Learning, about the neoliberal and exclusionary practices of a very disciplinarian secondary school, is one of the best ethnographies I’ve ever read).

6. Intro and conclusion

  • Add an introduction to your lit review, reminding the reader about the main topic of the assignment, and then laying out the themes you will be addressing in the section
  • Finish it off with a conclusion, pulling the main threads together

E. What goes in a methods section?

(Narrated PowerPoint here: How to write a methods section_recorded (2) Click on ‘Slide Show- Play from start’  and you’ll hear my voice narrating the steps).

1.Start with an introductory sentence referring back to your main research question and explain why the method is appropriate to the question

  • My question is therefore…
  • In order to answer this question I did this… (brief summary)

2. Add literature/references to your methods section

  • Other people have written the following about my chosen method…
  • This method is appropriate for my research focus because…

3. Say what you actually did

  • I did my interviews/observations/focus group/text analysis in this context/with these people/on these websites…
  • We met in a café/at university… because…
  • These people/websites/locations were appropriate for this research because…
  • Access issues included…
  • I recorded the data on a voice recorder/in a notebook/using photography…

Nb don’t waste a whole page on explaining generic concepts like ‘qualitative research’ or ‘interviews’. Be specific to your own chosen approach.

4. Limitations (but don’t spend too long saying what you didn’t do)

  • Limitations to my methodology were…

5. How did you analyse your data?

  • I analysed my data by (eg arranging it into themes, which emerged from the literature/my initial question/the respondents themselves… coding it according to the main issues that arose…)

6. Ethics

  • Ethics follow on from the methodology
  • Ethical issues arising from the research included…

– Confidentiality

– Informed consent

– Sensitivity

  • I dealt with these issues by…

– Interviewing in a neutral location

– Using open questions to allow the respondent to raise any sensitive issues

– Participatory methods

– Using an informed consent information sheet

F. How to write the main paragraphs of a data-with-analysis/findings section

(Narrated PowerPoint here: How to write a data section_recorded (3) click on ‘Slide Show- Play from start’  and you’ll hear my childlike voice narrating the steps)

Your findings section will need its own introduction and conclusion. Main body paragraphs can be built up as follows. If you follow this structure you will be ideally ticking all those evidence, reference, and analysis boxes you need to get a decent mark.

1.Writing a data-with-analysis paragraph

  • Introduce the themes or ideas emerging from the data (these themes should ideally reflect those used in your lit review)
  • Give an example of the theme or issue which is arising from your data
  • Bring in an author (from the corresponding theme in your lit review) who talks about the theme or issue and quote or paraphrase them
  • Reflect or comment on the author’s idea which you have just quoted or paraphrased

The second and third step could be repeated in the paragraph if you had a couple of good examples.

2. Sample text (from this book): a data-with-analysis paragraph:

It seemed from my observations that a permanent exclusion option must have a negative effect on pupils and professionals. For example, Cherry Tree School’s head teacher told me angrily, ‘Michael Johns: I have had enough of him!’ Because exclusion was an option, this head teacher could afford to ‘have enough’ of one of her learners. This shut down her ability to creatively think about other ways to support him. As Searle (1996) explains, ‘The abolition of corporal punishment gave teachers the opportunity to develop skills in … strategies of counselling and community liaison that they had not thought possible … An end to ‘permanent exclusion’ (except in the most dire and unavoidable circumstances) would have the same positive effect’ (p.41). In other words, the existence of permanent exclusion from school limits teachers’ behaviour management skills.

3. Let’s break it down a bit…

(a) Identify the themes or ideas which are emerging from your data. These might follow the theme headings you decided on when you structured the literature review. They might be new for you, emerging as a surprise from your data. They are ideas which you have learned from your research

Examples of emerging themes or ideas:

  • Parents are a big influence on what children like to do outside…
  • Musicians tend not to see informal learning taking place but consider what they do to be ‘work’…
  • Dance classes are often marketed toward white middle class people, unless they are called ‘street’ or ‘urban’…

Adults who have been excluded from school as children often find themselves in the criminal justice system later on…

  • What are some of your emerging themes or ideas?
  • What do you predict might be some of your emerging themes or ideas?

Write them down using the sentence starters:

  • The data suggests that…
  • My findings point towards
  • One issue that emerged

(b) Give an example of the theme or issue which is arising from your data

  • For example, in the first interview, Alice said that ‘…
  • This was demonstrated during the first observation. Billy aged four ran across the room and…
  • One of the websites showed this: the primary colours used suggested a focus on younger children…

What specific examples can you give regarding the themes or issues you see arising from your data?

(c) Bring in an author who talks about the theme or issue and quote or paraphrase them.

  • Find a quote which relates to the theme or idea which emerges from your data

Write it down with the author’s last name, year published and page number: Eg…

  • One theorist who discusses this is Jones (2012), who notes that…
  • Smith (2014) addresses this issue, suggesting that…
  • One idea Evans (2010) raises in relation to this is…

Reflect on the author’s idea which you have just quoted or paraphrased

  • This suggests that
  • In other words
  • One conclusion that might be drawn from this is…

(d) What do you think of the quote or idea you just selected?

Don’t give someone else the last word. Finish the paragraph with your own summary sentence.

4. Another example:

Many permanent exclusions seemed to be about making an example out of the child. This was demonstrated in Alex’s case: although he had Tourette’s Syndrome and could not help himself, the school had still excluded him to demonstrate, as the head teacher explained, ‘zero tolerance to disrespectful language towards a teacher’.  Osler and Vincent (2003) suggest that the government has an official ‘consequences’ discourse (34). The goal to reduce numbers of permanent exclusions had, they explain, ‘been replaced by a growing official concern about the need to address youth violence and criminal behaviour, in which exclusion from school was seen as an essential policy tool’ (34). One conclusion that can be drawn from this might be that children like Alex were being excluded from school to make a political point about being tough on crime.

5. Now you try

  • Introduce the themes or ideas emerging from the data
  • Give an example of the theme or issue which is arising from your data
  • Bring in an author who talks about the theme or issue and quote or paraphrase them
  • Reflect on the author’s idea which you have just quoted or paraphrased

6. Edit

Read the paragraph aloud

  • …edit the paragraph

First published March 3, 2020


Black Lives Matter: Then, Now & Always

Wayne Reid portrait

Written by Wayne Reid

Professional Officer & Social Worker

The murder of George Floyd is the latest in a long line of atrocities and brutalities endured by the global Black community.  This has a long history.  Longer than is sometimes convenient for honest acknowledgement.  I notice some commentators are referring to George’s ‘death’, which is a dilution of what occurred.  George was brutally murdered by a Police Officer and the world has seen the evidence. 

 

The context to George’s murder is emotive and cumulative: the Amy Cooper ‘race grenade’; endless examples of police brutality cases in the US and UK; modern-day systems of oppression and the historic and ongoing the suppression of the effects of slavery and colonialism in mainstream education.  These factors can accumulate and create an acute sense of anger and rage. These emotions can manifest into civil disorder and criminality.  It has been evidenced that anarchic extremists are infiltrating protests to covertly fuel acts of looting and violence, which is then reported by the media in such ways to discredit the protesters.  This detracts from the causal factors that have triggered the protests – and if we want to discuss looting, how about the longstanding looting of Africa’s natural resources? 

 

As a Black British male social worker, I write this article on Black Lives Matter ‘wearing numerous hats’, as this issue affects me deeply both personally and professionally.  Clearly, my opinion cannot and should not be understood as representing all Black and ethnic minority people/practitioners.  We are not a homogenous group.  It was important to me for my employer, the British Association of Social Workers (BASW), to publish our organisational position statements before I wrote this article, as I refuse to be the tokenistic ‘Black voice’ of BASW.  I’m one of many Black voices in social work.  It is my reality, that my role enables me to be heard more broadly than others.

 

I’m immensely proud of the authenticity and candour of BASW’s statements responding to George’s murder and in support of the fight against racialised discrimination.

 

Those who follow me on Twitter, or who are on my mailing list, will have observed my campaign to educate, empower and equip Black and ethnic minority people – and importantly our allies – with various information and resources.

 

On occasions, I have been outspoken about the delayed/weak position statements and responses from prominent social work leaders and organisations.  Given that social work’s core values and ethics are deep-rooted in anti-oppressive practice and social justice, this eventuality has been particularly disappointing for me and many others within the profession.  Sadly, these values and ethics appear sometimes to have been taken for granted, diluted or ignored in recent years/decades.  Perhaps austerity has desensitised us?  Overall, I’m sure Black and ethnic minority social workers and service-users will welcome the late (if weak) acknowledgements and platitudes from some of the social work elite.  The statements will send a necessary message to employers and other stakeholders across the profession about the relevance of current world events to social work policy, practice and education.  However, I think some of the statements could be strengthened by providing a clearer commitment to systemic reforms to eradicate all forms of racism through specific, measurable, achievable and realistic targets.

 

During the furore surrounding George’s murder, some individuals/organisations have recoiled at the suggestion they may be racist.  “I’m not a racist!” is the common response.  The accusations seemingly worse than the facts.  I would argue that racism is not an absolute mindset, instead it’s a rather fluid one.  There are degrees of racism.  I imagine very few people reading this article would identify with extreme right-wing neo-Nazi racism, but many will have stereotypical views about certain ethnic groups which they project in everyday situations (if they are honest/self-aware).  There is a structural and lazy acceptance, that ‘lower level’ prejudice and oppression are somehow separate – with the former being considered a less important issue.  However, I believe if this changed it would engender a real decrease in the overt, violent forms of ‘race-related hate’.

 

In my view, the spectrums of white privilege and white supremacy are also broad – not absolute.  This graphic here best describes my views.  Fundamentally, there are a range of behaviours and oppressive systems that are socially acceptable, which we must address and redress to tackle racism effectively in all its ugly manifestations.  For example, the statement ‘all lives matter’ is covert racism, as it ignores the history and current circumstances of Black people globally.  Physical colonisation and slavery may no longer be acceptable or legal, but colonisation and slavery of the mind has been the norm since their abolition.  Black lives matter applies then, now and always.

 

The recent misdemeanours of Dominic Cummings show us there are clear double standards; not just from a class perspective (which was perpetuated by the media) – but also through the lens of white privilege.  I wonder how Raheem Sterling would have been portrayed flouting the lockdown rules.

 

Labels/terms such as Commonwealth, ‘hostile environment’, and ‘BAME’ need to be re-examined.  BAME does not describe who I am.  BAME is a clumsy, cluttered and incoherent acronym that is opportune for categorising people of colour as a homogenous group – when we quite clearly are not.  Of course, I cannot speak for all people of colour.  I understand that ‘BAME’ can be operationally helpful when exploring the overarching effects of all things racist.  However, it misses so much nuance and subtlety, that it can be seized upon by those who wish to deny racism as a white problem.  Routinely, I hear people comfortably stating that BAME people “can’t even agree amongst themselves”.  This sloppy reductivism, leads to terms being invented such as ‘Black and Black’ crime.  I have not heard about “White on White” crime – ever.

 

Some quarters consider having a small minority of people from Black and ethnic minority groups who reach positions of power (including within the current Cabinet), as progress, in and of itself.  I respectfully disagree and would go so far as to say it is actually unhelpful in this case.  I think a contingent of these people only seem to identify as being people of colour when it is expedient.  Often, they have championed policies that in fact would have previously disadvantaged their own families – which is basically ‘pulling up the drawbridge’ and ‘morally bankrupt’.  In some ways it is worse than having a ‘conventional racist’ at the helm.  To quote Malcolm X: “I have more respect for a [person] who lets me know where [they stand], even if [they are] wrong, than the one who comes up like an angel and is nothing but a devil.”  Politician’s have form for allowing their personal ambitions to override ethics and morality.  Their denials can play beautifully into the hands of those who seek to maintain the existing order.  As black and ethnic minority representation is disproportionately very low, these people do not necessarily use their power for good and structural inequalities remain unchanged.  

 

At this current juncture in race relations, there has been much discussion about how ‘white allies’ can be ‘anti-racist’ and supportive to the cause.  Of course, allies can be personal and/or professional.  So, what is really behind those awkward smiles and sugary sympathy?  Actions most definitely speak louder than words.  It’s time for all well-intentioned platitudes and recycled rhetoric to be converted into meaningful activism and ‘root and branch’ reform.  This weblink will provide allies with relevant resources on their journey.

 

‘Blackout Day’, on 07/07/20, is when Black and ethnic minority people (and their allies) will not spend any money (or if they must, only at Black businesses).  This is so important, as it sends a strong message to the capitalist elite in the only language they understand – money.  See this video for more information on ‘Blackout Day’.   We must build on this impetus and momentum to be taken seriously.

 

It is imperative that social workers evaluate their roles and (moral and regulatory) responsibilities.  Current race relations require social workers to be proactive and do our homework to stay contemporarily astute as allies to Black and ethnic minority colleagues and service-users.  There are various opportunities through BASW to develop your expertise in this area with our Equality, Diversity & Inclusion Group, events, branch meetings and training programmes.  Also, I will be leading a Black & Ethnic Professionals Symposium (BPS) for BASW members in the coming weeks, so do contact me at wayne.reid@basw.co.uk or @wayne_reid79 – if this is of interest.

 

We all know that organisations are at times avoidant of these issues, but as social workers we must recognise that silence on racism is complicity with the oppressors.  BASW will not remain silent on this issue and we implore you to do the same.

 

‘One world, one race… the human race!’


Inclusive Allyship

Hannah Wilson portrait

Written by Hannah Wilson

Founder of Diverse Educators

Allies:

noun. a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose.

verb. combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

Allyship:

A lifelong process of building relationships based on trust, consistency, and accountability with marginalized individuals and/or groups of people. not self-defined—work and efforts must be recognized by those you are seeking to ally with.

Why do we need to be Inclusive Allies?

We are all humans. We are all equal. We all need to check our privilege. We need to empathise with the struggle that some people go through. We need to be aware of the obstacles and the barriers in the way of some people on their journey.  We need to be aware of the impact of prejudice and discrimination.

#HeForShe and #WhiteAlly are two labels I have heard used in the last few years as the grassroots communities encourage supporters to join their movements for change.

Much like #DiverseEd aims to make connections between the different communities, we need a term to capture everyone who works with others to. At the #CollaborativeSupportForWomen event and our #DiverseEd event we have promoted the idea of Inclusive Allies:

Amy Ferguson spoke about Allyship at the Collaborative Support for Women event and the recording is here.

Patrick Ottley O’Connor spoke about Allyship at the Virtual Diverse Educators event and the recording is here.

Allyship is a process, and everyone has more to learn. Allyship involves a lot of listening. Sometimes, people say “doing ally work” or “acting in solidarity with” to reference the fact that “ally” is not an identity, it is an ongoing and lifelong process that involves a lot of work.

Inclusive Allyship is:

Men working alongside women to smash glass ceilings and advance gender equality.

White people working alongside people of colour to smash concrete ceilings and advance racial equity.

Heterosexual people working alongside Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and Intersex people to smash the gay glass ceiling.

Able-bodied people working alongside disabled people to smash the glass disability glass ceiling.

How do we support as Inclusive Allies?

Allyship is about confronting othering, ‘isms’, privilege, prejudice. Allyship is about standing up and speaking out on social justice issues.

I found a great website called Diversability which encourages us to think differently about allyship and I have lifted the below advice from The Guide to Allyship.

How to be an Inclusive Ally:

Take on the struggle as your own.

Stand up, even when you feel scared.

Transfer the benefits of your privilege to those who lack it.

Acknowledge that even though you feel pain, the conversation is not about you.

Be willing to own your mistakes and de-centre yourself.

Understand that your education is up to you and no one else.

Being an Inclusive Ally is about white people, straight people and able-bodied people being aware of our privilege. We need to do the work, the inner work, to reflect, to learn and to grow. As an Inclusive Ally there are different roles we can take on to move the conversation and the agenda for diversity, equity and inclusion forward.

7 ways to be an Inclusive Ally:

The Sponsor

The Champion

The Amplifier

The Advocate

The Scholar

The Upstander

The Confidant

Allyship will not always be comfortable. We need to get comfortable with being uncomfortable. We need to check our privilege and realise that our momentary discomfort is not comparable to the long-term discomfort that people live with. Trauma and tragedy are the lived experienced for many people.

The last few months have been emotionally-charged. Our colleagues, our communities and our children who come from diverse backgrounds have potentially been deeply affected by the tragic murder of George Flood. I saw potentially as we cannot assume that everyone has experienced and responded to the most recent Black Lives Matter incident in the same way. To deepen your understanding I recommend reading this article on How to be an Ally During Times of Tragedy.

Becoming and being an Inclusive Ally requires intention, commitment and action. We need to lean in to this space, no matter how hard, how painful and how uncomfortable it is.

What do we do to be Inclusive Allies?

THE DO’S

Do be open to listening

Do be aware of your implicit biases

Do your research to learn more about the history of the struggle in which you are participating

Do the inner work to figure out a way to acknowledge how you participate in oppressive systems

Do the outer work and figure out how to change the oppressive systems

Do use your privilege to amplify (digitally and in-person) historically suppressed voices

Do learn how to listen and accept criticism with grace, even if it’s uncomfortable

Do the work every day to learn how to be a better ally

THE DON’TS

Do not expect to be taught or shown. Take it upon yourself to use the tools around you to learn and answer your questions

Do not participate for the gold medal in the “Oppression Olympics” (you don’t need to compare how your struggle is “just as bad as” a marginalized person’s)

Do not behave as though you know best

Do not take credit for the labour of those who are marginalized and did the work before you stepped into the picture

Do not assume that every member of an under-invested community feels oppressed

For teachers and those working in education we need to consider the impact we can have in our classrooms and our schools. We need to be the change in teaching tolerance and acceptance, we need to celebrate diversity and create a sense of belonging for all identities. We need to ensure that our environments and physically and psychologically safe for everybody. We need to have the big conversations about the world to equip everybody with the knowledge, skills and values to navigate society.

There are  10 Things You Can Do to be an Ally:

Listen

Get educated

Get involved

Show up

Speak up

Intervene

Welcome discomfort

Learn from your mistakes

Stay engaged

Donate

There are some tips here on how to be a teaching tolerance ally here.

For leaders, being an ally is a journey.  Even the most inclusive leaders admit they have room to grow.  The work never stops, yet it is your choice to start, to practise, and to be better every single day. There is a training programme here you may be interested in on leading like an ally.

Following our most recent Diverse Educators conference in June we have a series of free training videos of the event available for staff CPD on the topics of Landscape, Curriculum, Culture and Leadership: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3MxxcAlAy__4H5GiygV7fA?view_as=subscriber

I have also started a series of weekly webcasts with a HR and D&I specialist called #FastForwardDiversityInclusion available here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/fastforwarddiversityinclusion-a-weekly-webcast-tickets-111397462810

My #DiverseEdPledge from the event is to be a better Inclusive Ally. Let’s all be upstanders for what is right, not bystanders for what is wrong.